物流分野においては、国土交通省生産性革命本部において決定された「『物流生産性革命』?効率的で高付加価値なスマート物流の実現?」プロジェクトを推進し、物流の効率化・高度化の取組を進めております。また、「日本再興戦略」（平成28 年6 月20日閣議決定）において「物流を考慮した建築物の設計・運用ガイドラインを本年度に策定する」旨が掲げられています。このため、平成28年11月に、有識者、関係団体、関係省庁からなる「物流を考慮した建築物の設計・運用検討会」を設置しました。同検討会において、設計上の考慮事項や運用による物流の効率化について検討を行い、平成29年3月24日の第6回検討会（最終回）の意見を踏まえ、「物流を考慮した建築物の設計・運用について?大規模建築物に係る物流の円滑化の手引き?」をとりまとめました。
DHL Trend Report '3D Printing and the Future of Supply Chains' identifies potential for new links in the supply chain
Spare parts on demand solutions, product postponement services and 3D print shops among likely applications
DHL released its latest DHL Trend Report - 3D Printing and the Future of Supply Chains. DHL has been testing a variety of both 3D printing hardware and techniques for several years and has identified applications that have potential to redefine manufacturing and supply chain strategies. While the 3D printing market is estimated to grow between US$180 billion and US$490 billion by 20251, the report however finds it will not become a substitute for mass-production but a complementary process.
Matthias Heutger, Senior Vice President, DHL Customer Solutions & Innovation, said: "The DHL Trend Report '3D Printing and the Future of Supply Chains' recognizes 3D printing as a transformative technology. However, it is not a magic bullet that will render factory mass production and manufacturing obsolete. Its exciting potential lies more in its capability to simplify the production of highly complex and customizable products and spare parts - and this could bring logistics and manufacturing closer together than ever before."
Redefining supply chain strategies
Also known as additive technology, 3D printing involves manufacturing products by layering heated plastic or metal injected from the nozzle of a 3D printer onto a plate to create a three-dimensional object, potentially replacing processes such as forging and molding at a fraction of the cost. It can lead to improved product quality, multiple products being made by a single printer, new types of products - and new supply chain strategies and models.
It has been adopted globally by the aviation, engineering, automotive and healthcare industries. Mercedes Benz Trucks has launched a 3D printed spare parts service and in healthcare, 3D printing allied to scanners is creating custom-made external and internal items from prosthetics to dental crowns. It is also being used for autonomous production in remote environments - a highly sought-after service by mining companies, space agencies, and the military to make critical spare parts.
A complementary technology
Factors currently limiting more widespread adoption of 3D printing - around since the 1980s - include lack of management knowledge, economic and technological issues. Many printers can use only one material and costs are still high for industrial-grade 3D printer. As well as facing warranty, liability and intellectual property issues, 3D printing needs to become faster, more agile and more advanced before it can become a core production technology.
Markus Kückelhaus, Vice President Innovation and Trend Research, DHL Customer Solutions & Innovation, said: "Not all products should, can or will be 3D printed. But encouraged by opportunities for greater customization, less waste, and more localized manufacturing and delivery, companies across many industry verticals are showing increasing interest in using 3D printing. A recent survey revealed that 38 percent of companies anticipate using 3D printing in their serial production within five years but not necessarily to completely replace traditional manufacturing.2 We believe 3D printing will have the most impact in the medium term on logistics in spare parts and individualized parts manufacturing."
Greatest impact on spare parts logistics
The report '3D Printing and the Future of Supply Chains' highlights opportunities for companies to team up with logistics providers offering 3D printing. These areas include 'spare parts on demand', a model that would cut enterprise storage costs; 'end-of-runway services' for fast production of time-sensitive parts, and 'product postponement services' to increase customization options and simultaneously reduce lead time to the customer.
Individualized direct part manufacturing and product postponement services, both led by customer demand for individualized products, could see manufacturing and assembly divided into stages with regional or locally located printers involved in the final production. Both would require completely new supply chain strategies.
A major focus for end-of-runway services are sector-specific service offerings and integrated return and repair services; printing could be leveraged here to enable fast production and dispatch of parts. This would be invaluable to the energy, engineering and manufacturing sectors - and could also improve warranty repair operations in the consumer sector too. Spare parts on demand could involve logistics companies in the supply chain in a revolutionary new way by printing the parts enroute to delivering them to the customer.
"As manufacturers adapt their production processes, new opportunities and challenges to the supply chain will be created. At DHL, we look forward to working with customers and partners to jointly explore new solutions and unlock the potential of 3D printing and integrate it into logistics and future supply chains", added Matthias Heutger.
DHL, which has already trialled pop up 3D printing shops, recommends that companies involve their logistics partners in their 3D journey right from the assessment and analysis stage to maximise the potential rewards in terms of increased operational excellence and savings that the technology could supply.
A few months after the start-up of the project and in line with the planned schedule, the initial development phase of this unique project has come to a successful conclusion following extensive testing in real-life conditions at the sites of Saint-Ouen-l'Aumône (near Paris) and Plaisance-du-Touch (near Toulouse).
The initial prototype demonstrated all the potential of the developed system. It comprises a quadcopter drone fit with high-resolution cameras and a ground-based robot equipped with a battery providing the necessary energy for the system. Capable of identifying pallets in low-light conditions, the solution is operated using several dedicated electronics and computer systems.
GEODIS and DELTA DRONE signed an agreement on April 28, 2016 on the joint development of a solution for automated warehouse inventory using drones. The system, which ensures data counting and reporting in real time, aims to integrate the entire value chain, including data processing and retrieval in the GEODIS information system (WMS).
The final delivery of a completed prototype is planned for first-quarter 2017, followed by the start of the industrial development phase prior to the start-up of operational use at the warehouses of GEODIS and its customers in France and internationally.
About DELTA DRONE
The Delta Drone group is a renowned player in the sector of civilian drones for professional use. It offers a global service ranging from data acquisition to data processing using a specially developed IT system. Delta Drone is listed on the Alternext market of Euronext Paris. ISIN code: FR0011522168.
In 2014, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon appointed an independent High-Level Advisory Group on Sustainable Transport to provide a focused set of recommendations on how the transport sector can advance sustainable development with poverty eradication at its core, promote economic growth, and bolster the fight against climate change. The outcome of this effort is Mobilizing Sustainable Transport for Development, the first ever Global Sustainable Transport Outlook Report, addressing all modes of transport, in developing and developed countries.
岩尾 俊兵（東京大学大学院経済学研究科 博士課程）
加藤 木綿美（東京大学大学院経済学研究科 博士課程）
Panalpina and Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, Wales (UK), have strengthened their partnership with the launch of a new Logistics Manufacturing Research Centre, which opened at the beginning of October 2016. The center will conduct leading research into the fields of distributed manufacturing, 3D printing, the circular economy and the impact of digital manufacturing on global supply chains. The new center has already secured its first research grant.
The new Panalpina Research Centre, partially funded by Panalpina, is located at Cardiff Business School. With Panalpina employees working alongside academic researchers, both partners will gain more insight into the evolving world of logistics and manufacturing.
Mike Wilson, global head of Logistics at Panalpina says: “Over the last four years of working with Cardiff Business School, we have been able to jointly identify future manufacturing and supply chain trends, and build our business in anticipation of this changing environment. Looking ahead, the insight provided by the research center will allow Panalpina to better design our customers’ manufacturing and supply chain strategies with new technologies and macro-economic forecasts in mind.”
Professor Aris Syntetos, the Panalpina Chair in Manufacturing and Logistics Research, Cardiff Business School, will head the new research center. He has recently secured a £500,000 research grant from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) ? the UK's main agency for funding research in engineering and the physical sciences. Syntetos was awarded the grant to support the center’s research into sustainable and circular remanufacturing networks. Ultimately, the grant will allow Cardiff Business School and Panalpina to conduct further research on the circular economy, where logistics and manufacturing services in the supply chain are increasingly combined.
Panalpina is an advocate of the circular economy, and believes that the future lies in better managing and extending product life cycles ? from sourcing to disposal. In an effort to drive innovation in the area, Panalpina and Cardiff Business School have worked together on a number of research projects. This includes the launch of their inventory forecasting application, ‘Demand-Driven Inventory Dispositioning’ (D2ID).
Earlier this year, Panalpina and Cardiff Business School started another two-year research project to examine the role 3D printing can play in distributed manufacturing models and global supply chains. The aim is to help Panalpina’s customers identify the right products that could be switched from traditional to new, additive manufacturing techniques such as 3D printing, and produced closer to the end-consumer market.
“The partnership with Panalpina and the various projects that are now combined under the roof of the research center allow our students to work on real-life industry problems, ensuring that our research remains not only relevant for companies, but that it is also translated into commercial solutions,” explains Syntetos. “Many of our students have been recruited by Panalpina to put their ideas into practice. With Cardiff graduates now working in locations such as Panama, Dubai and London, it is great to see our research having an impact across the world.”
About Cardiff Business School
Cardiff Business School, Cardiff University, is widely recognised as one of the leading business schools in the UK. In the latest UK Government Research Assessment Exercise, it was ranked fourth in the UK’s 96 business and management schools for the quality of its research, with 35% of its research projects classified as ‘world leading’. It has recently become the first business school in Wales, and the sixth Russell Group institution, to be awarded accreditation from the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), a hallmark of business school excellence which is awarded to less than 5% of the world’s business schools. It is the largest single School of Cardiff University, itself a Russell Group organisation, and educates over 2,600 students from 60 countries each year.